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Migration and Home Affairs


The causal relationship between gender and persecution i.e. when the reason for persecution is related to a person's gender.


Crawley, Heaven: Gender-Related Persecution and Women’s Claims to Asylum andUNHCR: Guidelines on international protection: Gender-related persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Regfuees, May 2002.


  • BG: преследване, основано на пола
  • CS: pronásledování na základě genderové příslušnosti
  • DE: Verfolgung aufgrund des Geschlechts / geschlechtsspezifische Verfolgung
  • EL: δίωξη λόγω φύλου
  • EN: gender-based persecution
  • ES: Persecución por razón de género
  • ET: sooline tagakiusamine
  • FI: sukupuolistunut väkivalta / sukupuoliperusteinen väkivalta
  • FR: persécution fondée sur le genre
  • GA: géarleanúint ar bhonn inscne
  • HU: nemi hovatartozáson alapuló üldöztetés
  • IT: persecuzione di genere
  • LT: persekiojimas lyties pagrindu
  • LV: dzimumspecifiska vajāšana
  • MT: Persekuzzjoni marbuta mal-ġeneru
  • NL: gendergerelateerde vervolging
  • PL: prześladowanie ze względu na płeć
  • PT: perseguição com base no género
  • SK: prenasledovanie z dôvodu rodovej príslušnosti
  • SL: preganjanje na podlagi spola
  • SV: könsrelaterad förföljelse
  • NO: kjønnsbasert forfolgelse (b); kjønnsbasert forfølging (n)


  • gender-related persecution
  • gender-specific persecution

Narrower Term(s)

Related Term(s)


1. Gender-based persecution is a term that has no legal meaning per se. It is used to encompass the range of different claims in which gender is a relevant consideration in the determination of refugee status . Gender-related claims may be brought by either women or men, although they are more commonly brought by women.
2. Although gender is not specifically referenced as one of the grounds on which an individual can be recognized as a refugee and given protection, it is widely accepted that it can influence or dictate the reasons for persecution and as such there is no need to add an additional ground to the Refugee Convention definition. A gender-sensitive interpretation should be given to each of the Convention grounds 'race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion' although gender-based persecution is predominantly interpreted within the parameters of the particular social group ground.