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Migration and Home Affairs


Process which is commonly carried out for identification and identity-verification purposes in different procedures on the basis of a review of documentary evidence, but which makes use of different procedures and methods when documentary evidence maybe inauthentic, inadequate, insufficient or absent.


Derived by EMN on the basis of the EMN Focused Study: Establishing identity for international protection: Challenges and Practices, 2013 and EMN Study: Challenges and practices for establishing applicants' identity in the migration process, 2017.


  • BG: установяване на самоличност
  • CS: určení totožnosti
  • DE: Identitätsfeststellung
  • EL: εξακρίβωση της ταυτότητας
  • EN: establishment of identity
  • ES: Determinación de la identidad
  • ET: isiku tuvastamine / isikusamasuse tuvastamine
  • FI: henkilöllisyyden selvittäminen
  • FR: établissement de l’identité
  • GA: aitheantas daoine faoi chosaint idirnaisiúnta a dhearbhú
  • HU: személyazonosság megállapítása
  • IT: Determinazione dell'identità
  • LT: asmens tapatybės nustatymas
  • LV: identitātes noteikšana
  • MT: affermazzjoni tal-identità
  • NL: identiteitsvaststelling
  • PL: ustalenie tożsamości wnioskującego o udzielenie ochrony międzynarodowej
  • PT: estabelecimento de identidade
  • RO: stabilirea identității
  • SK: zisťovanie totožnosti / zisťovanie identity
  • SL: ugotavljanje istovestnosti (identitete)
  • SV: fastställande av identitet
  • NO: fastsettelse av identiteten (b); fastsetjing av identiteten (n)
  • KA: ვინაობის დადგენა
  • UK: встановлення особи


  • establishment of identity for international protection
  • establishment of identity of individuals in international protection procedures
  • origin verification

Narrower Term(s)


1. As there is no universally agreed definition of identity and no legal definition common to all EU Member States, most EU Member States use practical definitions which at the minimum establish the first name, surname, sex, date of birth and nationality of the applicant.
2. This definition covers all procedures for which the establishment of identity is relevant (such as legal migration, visa, border control, international protection, return, residence and work permits, family reunification and naturalisation).
3. The tools used for the establishment of identity are, e.g. physical-technical examinations of the documents presented, investigations in the country of origin via the embassies, DNA test, retinal scanning, taking of finger prints, language analysis for the determination of origin (LADO) and age assessment .
4. Identification: The identification procedure/system aims to answer the question: “Who is this person?” Biometric identification systems are characterised as 1-to-n matching systems where n is the total number of biometrics in the database against which the person’s biometric characteristics are checked. Identification procedures and systems (e.g. biometric systems) are different from identity verification systems in that they seek to identify an unknown person or biometric.
5. Identity verification: Identity verification procedures and systems seek to answer the question: “Is this person who they say they are?” Biometric verification systems are generally described as 1-to-1 matching systems because they try to match the biometric presented by the individual against a specific biometric already on file.
6.The EMN Study 'Challenges and practices for establishing applicants’ identity in the migration process, 2017' examines (EU Member) States approaches to establish the identity of third-country nationals within the migration process in a broad sense, covering both identification and identity-verification related tasks.