Skip to main content
European Commission logo
Migration and Home Affairs


The particular legal bond between an individual and their State, acquired by birth or naturalisation, whether by declaration, choice, marriage or other means according to national legislation.


Art. 2(d) of Regulation (EC) No 862/2007 (Migration Statistics Regulation)


  • BG: гражданство
  • CS: státní občanství
  • DE: Staatsangehörigkeit / Staatsbürgerschaft
  • EL: ιθαγένεια / υπηκοότητα
  • EN: citizenship
  • ES: nacionalidad
  • ET: kodakondsus
  • FI: kansalaisuus
  • FR: nationalité
  • GA: saoránacht
  • HU: állampolgárság
  • IT: cittadinanza
  • LT: pilietybė
  • LV: pilsonība
  • MT: Ċittadinanza
  • NL: staatsburgerschap
  • PL: obywatelstwo
  • PT: nacionalidade
  • RO: cetăţenie
  • SK: štátne občianstvo / štátna príslušnosť
  • SL: državljanstvo
  • SV: medborgarskap
  • NO: statsborgerskap (b); statsborgarskap (n)


  • nationality

Narrower Term(s)

Related Term(s)


1. Whilst in some EU Member States a distinction is made between citizenship and nationality, in the EU context and for the purpose of this glossary, no distinction is made and the two terms are considered to be interchangeable. In countries which distinguish between citizenship and nationality, the term citizenship refers specifically to the legal rights and duties of nationals. The European Convention on Nationality, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) Glossary and the Global Citizenship Observatory (GLOBALCIT): Glossary on Citizenship and Electoral Rights prefer the term 'nationality'.
2. According to Art. 1 of the Hague Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Law, 1930, it is for each State to determine under its own laws who are its nationals.
3. The tie of nationality confers individual rights and imposes obligations that a State reserves for its population. Nationality carries with it certain consequences as regards migration, such as the right of a State to protect its nationals against violations of their individual rights committed by foreign authorities (particularly by means of diplomatic protection), the duty to accept its nationals onto its territory, and the prohibition to expel them.