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Migration and Home Affairs


Healthcare entitlements enjoyed by third-country nationals (migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees) in EU Member States and in their countries of origin.


Derived by EMN from Art. 11 of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive) and Art. 30 of Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)


  • BG: достъп до здравни гриижи
  • CS: přístup ke zdravotní péči
  • DE: Zugang zu medizinischer Versorgung
  • EL: πρόσβαση σε υγειονομική περίθαλψη (EL) ; πρόσβαση σε ιατροφαρμακευτική περίθαλψη (CY)
  • EN: access to healthcare
  • ES: acceso a la asistencia sanitaria
  • ET: juurdepääs tervishoiule
  • FI: oikeus terveydenhuoltoon
  • FR: accès aux soins de santé
  • GA: Rochtain ar Chúram Sláinte
  • HR: pristup zdravstvenoj zaštiti
  • HU: a migránsok társadalombiztosítási és egészségügyi ellátásokhoz való hozzáférése
  • IT: accesso all’assistenza sanitaria
  • LT: sveikatos priežiūros paslaugų prieinamumas
  • LV: veselības aprūpes pieejamība
  • MT: Aċċess għas-servizzi tas-saħħa / għall-kura sanitarja
  • NL: toegang tot gezondheidszorg
  • PL: dostęp do opieki zdrowotnej
  • PT: acesso aos cuidados de saúde
  • RO: acces la ingrijirea sanatatii / acces la sistemul medical
  • SK: prístup k zdravotnej starostlivosti
  • SL: dostop do zdravstvenega varstva
  • SV: tillgång till hälso- och sjukvård
  • NO: tilgang til helsetjenester (b); tilgang til helsetenester (n)
  • KA: ჯანდაცვის ხელმისაწვდომობა
  • UK: доступ до медичної допомоги
  • HY: առողջապահական խնամքի հասանելիություն


  • healthcare benefits
  • medical benefits

Broader Term(s)


1. In EU Member States, the scope of healthcare to which a third-country national has access depends on their residence or employment status. For further information see EMN: Migrants access to social security and healthcare: policies and practice, 2014
2. According to Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long Term Residents Directive), long-term residents enjoy the same access to healthcare as nationals as defined by national law.
3. Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive)grants access to adequate healthcare, including treatment of mental disorders when needed, to beneficiaries of international protection under the same eligibility conditions as nationals of the EU Member State that has granted such protection.
4.Directive 2013/33/EU (Recast Reception Conditions Directive) establishes minimum standards for access to healthcare for applicants of international protection during the asylum procedure. It requires EU Member States to ensure that asylum seekers at least receive emergency care and essential treatment for illnesses and serious mental disorders. However, the entitlement of asylum seekers to healthcare services depends on national legislation and varies among Member States. See for example, the EMN: Ad-Hoc Query on System of medical treatment of asylum seekers in Member States.
5. Access to healthcare can be a key factor in the process of decision-making on applications for international protection. Subsidiary protection may apply if the asylum-seeker contends that a return to the country of origin is impossible for health reasons, as the return of a sick person which is often connected with the medical standards in the country of return could constitute a breach of Art. 3 ECHR. Thus case workers have to take into account whether medical treatment is available in the country of origin and whether the available medical treatment would also be (e.g. financially) accessible to the concerned person upon return. For further information see the description of the MedCOI project in the List of projects funded by the European Refugee Fund in 2011.