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Migration and Home Affairs


The extent to which migrants will achieve the same range of labour market participation as nationals of EU Member States by using their skills and realising their economic potential.


Derived by EMN from:


  • BG: интеграция на пазара на труда
  • CS: integrace na pracovní trh
  • DE: Arbeitsmarktintegration / Eingliederung in den Arbeitsmarkt
  • EL: ένταξη στην αγορά εργασίας / εργασιακή ένταξη
  • EN: labour market integration
  • ES: Integración en el mercado de trabajo
  • ET: tööturule lõimimine/integreerimine
  • FI: työmarkkinoille integroituminen / työmarkkinoille sijoittuminen
  • FR: intégration sur le marché du travail
  • GA: imeascadh i margadh an tsaothair
  • HR: integracija na tržište rada
  • HU: munkaerő piaci integráció
  • IT: integrazione lavorativa
  • LT: integracija į darbo rinką
  • LV: integrācija darba tirgū
  • MT: integrazzjoni fis-suq tax-xogħol
  • NL: Arbeidsmarktintegratie
  • PL: integracja na rynku pracy
  • PT: integração no mercado de trabalho
  • RO: integrare pe piața muncii / integrare pe piața forței de muncă
  • SK: integrácia na trh(u) práce
  • SL: vključevanje na trg dela
  • SV: arbetsmarknadsintegration
  • NO: arbeidsmarkedsintegrering
  • KA: ინტეგრაცია შრომის ბაზარზე
  • UK: інтеграція до ринку праці
  • HY: ինտեգրում աշխատաշուկային


  • immigrant labour market integration
  • integration of migrants into the labour market

Broader Term(s)


1. Even though there are many studies dealing with challenges and obstacles to successful labour market integration, there is no universally accepted definition of labour market integration at international or European level.
2. The labour market integration of migrants is measured by monitoring gaps and differences in labour market participation between nationals and non-nationals in terms of employment rate, unemployment rate, labour force activity rate, wage convergence, levels of self-employment, working conditions and types of contracts. Explaining labour market integration outcomes and processes require a multidimensional analysis, taking into account both individual and structural characteristics. At the individual level, explanatory factors include the person's qualifications, educational attainment, language proficiency, skills level; at the structural level, explanatory factors include the segmentation of occupational structures, mismatches between supply and demand, policies and institutional arrangements (e.g. for the recognition of skills and of foreign educational titles), levels of ethnic stratification, the presence of discrimination and of ethnic penalties.
3. The labour force activity rate is calculated as the proportion of working age adults in the population who are in the labour force, which consists of the number of people employed and unemployed. For more information see: ESRI: Monitoring Report on Integration,Chapter 2, Employment and Integration, 2018.
4. Although integration policy falls within the national competence of EU Member States, European institutions have - arising from the Treaty of Lisbon - a mandate to support EU Member States to promote the integration of third-country nationals. The European Commission noted in their Action Plan on the integration of third-country nationals in 2016, that employment is key to ensure their effective integration into the host societies and their positive impact on the EU economy. The EU acquis is already regulating areas closely related to the promotion of labour market integration of third-country nationals. EU legislation includes provisions on equal access to the labour market, such as Art. 11(1)a of Council Directive 2003/109/EC (Long-term Residents Directive) or Art. 12 of Directive 2011/98/EU (Single Permit Directive) which provides for equal treatment with regard to working conditions, including pay and dismissal as well as health and safety at the workplace.
5. The EMN Study 'Labour Market Integration of Third-Country Nationals in EU Member States 2019' gives a comprehensive overview of different labour market integration policies in place in EU Member States with a focus on first generation third-country nationals, outlines the most common obstacles to labour market integration and presents best practices. For further information see the synthesis report of this study.