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Migration and Home Affairs


The socially constructed attributes, roles, activities, responsibilities and needs predominantly connected to being male or female in given societies or communities at a given time.


Derived by EMN from the list of Concepts and Definitions on the UN Women website.


  • BG: социален пол
  • CS: gender
  • DE: soziales Geschlecht
  • EL: φύλο
  • EN: gender
  • ES: género
  • ET: sugu
  • FI: sukupuoli
  • FR: genre
  • GA: inscne
  • HU: nemi szerep
  • IT: genere
  • LT: lytis
  • LV: dzimums
  • MT: Ġeneru / Ġens / Sess
  • NL: gender
  • PL: gender, płeć społeczno-kulturowa
  • PT: género
  • RO: gen
  • SK: rod
  • SL: spol
  • SV: genus
  • NO: kjønn


  • gender identity

Related Term(s)


1. People fleeing human rights violations and persecution due to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity may qualify for international protection . Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) refers in Art. 10 'Reasons for persecution' to gender related aspects, including gender identity, which shall be given due consideration for the purposes of determining membership of a particular social group or identifying a characteristic of such a group.
2. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the European Union Agency for Asylum (EUAA) use the following definition of 'gender identity': '"Each person's deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth, including the personal sense of the body - which may involve, if chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical or other means - and other expressions of gender, including of dress, speech and mannerism (see ICJ, Yogyakarta Principles - Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, ('Yogyakarta Principles'), March 2007)