- In the global context, a core principle of international refugee and human rights law that prohibits States from returning individuals to a country where there is a real risk of being subjected to persecution, torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or any other human rights violation.
- In the refugee context, a core principle of international refugee law that prohibits States from returning refugees in any manner whatsoever to countries or territories in which their lives or freedom may be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.
- Global context: developed by EMN
- Refugee context: Art. 33 of the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol
- BG: non-refoulement / забрана за експулсиране или връщане
- CS: princip nenavracení / non-refoulement
- DE: Nichtzurückweisung / Non-refoulement / Schutz vor Zurückweisung / Verbot der Ausweisung und Zurückweisung
- EL: μη- επαναπροώθηση
- EN: non-refoulement
- ES: non-refoulement
- ET: tagasisaatmise lubamatus / non-refoulement
- FI: palauttamiskielto
- FR: non-refoulement / interdiction de retour forcé (LU)
- GA: neamh-refoulement
- HU: visszaküldés tilalma
- IT: non-refoulement
- LT: negrąžinimas
- LV: neizraidīšana
- MT: Prinċipju (il-) ta’ non-refoulement - li ma jsirx ritorn imġiegħel jew sfurzat
- NL: non-refoulement / beginsel van niet-uitwijzing
- PL: zasada non-refoulement/ zasada niewydalania
- PT: non-refoulement
- RO: non-refoulment/ nereturnare
- SK: zásada zákazu vyhostenia alebo vrátenia / zásada non-refoulement / princíp nenavrátenia
- SL: načelo nevračanja
- SV: non-refoulement (förbud mot avvisning / utvisning)
- NO: vern mot utsendelse (b); vern mot utsending (n)
1.The principle of non-refoulement is a part of customary international law and is therefore binding on all States, whether or not they are parties to the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol.
2. In international law the prohibition on refoulement has been developed in various legal instruments, on both a global and a regional level, such as in Art. 3 of the Convention against Torture (CAT), in Art.7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and Art. 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Initially, the prohibition on refoulement was developed in relation to the protection of refugees.
3. The ECtHR does not contain an explicit prohibition on refoulement. However, in particular, under Art. 3 of ECHR a refoulement prohibition has been developed by the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR).
4. Art. 3 of the ECHR also prohibits indirect refoulement, the removal to a third - intermediary - country from which the individual may then be removed to the country in which he faces a real risk of the proscribed ill-treatment.
5.For further information see: Wouters, Cornelius Wolfram: International legal Standards for the Protection from Refoulement. - Leiden, 2009