- Target Audience
- Violent extremistsPrison / probationFirst responders or practitioners
- key themes association
- Deradicalisation/disengagementPrison and probation
- Peer Reviewed practice
The Dutch Probation Service
Is an independent organisation with the primary goal of shaping a safer society. The Probation Service is actively involved in the criminal justice process; when an offender is detained, it plays an advisory and supervisory role during the court session and the detention period.
Judicial, municipal, prison and police authorities cooperate to prevent offenders from reoffending. Probation workers provide advisory services to the Office of the Public Prosecutor and the Judiciary, supervise conditional sanctions and measures, and implement alternative sanctions (e.g. community services).
Dutch detainees abroad receive assistance from the International Office of the Dutch Probation Service. In supervision, probation workers continually monitor whether offenders are honouring the agreements made.
In cognitive behavioural training, offenders’ motivation is increased, prosocial choices are encouraged and self-reflection is stimulated, so that behavioural change can be established.
Type of Organisation: Other
Inclusion is inspired by two existing programmes: EXIT Sweden and the Dutch cognitive behavioural programme Solo. We used the elements of each programme that appeared best suited to our target group. The key element of Solo is the participation of a so-called significant other (SO) in the reintegration process, while EXIT Sweden focuses on building a new identity outside the extremist network.
Inclusion is an individualised, tailor-made programme that is elaborated during probation supervision. Inclusion's chief aim of is to disengage radicalised Muslims (mainly home-grown jihadi) from radical movements.
It consists of three modules.
- Practical help
In the first stage of Inclusion, the trainer alone provides practical help. The participant draws a Plan for the Future, in which he or she defines goals. For instance, there may be housing, employment, or debt problems to be tackled. By meeting the material needs of the participant, the trainer gains their trust and establishes a working alliance. The participant learns new skills to boost their self-confidence. This will broaden the participant's perspective and provide an opportunity to move away from the radical environment.
- Network approach
At the same time, trainer and participant map the network of the participant: is there anyone in the former prosocial network (teacher, imam or friend, for instance) that the participant wants to get in touch with? If so, contact is made, and this SO then assists the participant with hands-on activities. If there is no SO available in the network, Inclusion provides a volunteer.
The trainer also encourages participants to repair relations with a friend or family member, with support from the SO. Consultations can also be arranged with religious experts, e.g. an imam. By degrees, the participant is introduced into and included in society by expanding his network. The trainer continues to build a trusting relationship, and motivates the participant to achieve (behavioural) change.
- Cognitive behavioural training
If the participant starts to use the 'language of change', Module 3 is launched. This involves nine categories of cognitive behavioural exercises:
- thinking patterns/attitude/behaviour
- anger/frustration tolerance
- locus of control
- (universal) values
- (religious) meaning
- social skills.
The trainer selects the themes that play a role in the life of the participant. If agreed by the participant, the SO may participate.
In June 2017, Inclusion is to be tested by trained members of the Terrorists, Extremists and Radicals (TER) team of the Dutch Probation Service.
In 2016, the programme Manual of Inclusion was completed. We also produced a Working Book that includes the required training materials (URLs, pictures, puzzles, etc.).
There is also a Factsheet available (in Dutch), containing brief information on Inclusion for our stakeholders.