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Migration and Home Affairs

real risk of suffering serious harm


Risk of serious harm experienced by an applicant for international protection which is considered to be both real and likely to occur.


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  • BG: реален риск от тежки посегателства
  • CS: hrozba skutečného nebezpečí vážné újmy
  • DE: tatsächliche Gefahr, einen ernsthaften Schaden zu erleiden
  • EL: πραγματικός κίνδυνος σοβαρής βλάβης
  • EN: real risk of suffering serious harm
  • ES: riesgo real de sufrir daños graves
  • ET: reaalne risk tõsise ohu tekkimiseks
  • FI: todellinen vaara joutua kärsimään vakavaa haittaa
  • FR: risque réel de subir des atteintes graves
  • GA: baol iarbhír díobháil thromchúiseach a fhulaingt
  • HU: súlyos sérelem elszenvedésének tényleges veszélye
  • IT: rischio effettivo di subire un grave danno
  • LT: realus pavojus patirti didelę žalą
  • LV: reāls risks ciest smagu kaitējumu
  • MT: Riskju reali / veru li ġġarrab dannu(-i) serju(-i)
  • NL: reëel risico op het lijden van ernstige schade
  • PL: rzeczywiste ryzyko doznania poważnej krzywdy
  • PT: risco real de sofrer ofensa grave
  • RO: risc real de vătămare fizică gravă
  • SK: reálne riziko utrpenia vážneho bezprávia / reálne riziko vážneho bezprávia
  • SL: utemeljeno tveganje resne škode
  • SV: verklig risk för att lida allvarlig skada
  • NO: reell fare for alvorlig skade (b); reell fare for alvorleg skade (n)

Broader Term(s)

Related Term(s)


1. The likelihood of an applicant for international protection suffering serious harm is assessed in order to provide a standard of proof for assessing eligibility for subsidiary protection. According to Art. 4(4) of the Directive 2011/95/EU (Recast Qualification Directive) on the ‘assessment of facts and circumstances’, earlier serious harm or direct threats are appraised as a ‘serious indication of the applicant’s real risk of suffering serious harm, unless there are good reasons to consider that such persecution or serious harm will not be repeated’.
2. The European Court of Human Rights has ruled in a high number of different cases that there is a violation of Art. 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) ‘if substantial grounds have been shown for believing that the person concerned, if deported, faces a real risk of being subjected to treatment contrary to Art. 3 ECHR’. In light of the Court’s consequent jurisprudence, this standard means that:
(a) there is no need for the risk to be very high (no certainty or significant probability requirement);
(b) at the same time the risk cannot be a mere possibility (a distant, vague or theoretical alternative).