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Migration and Home Affairs


All monitoring activities undertaken in respect of removal from the territory of an EU/EFTA Member State of a third-country national ordered to leave the country (from the preparation of departure, until reception in the country of return or in the case of failed removal until return to the point of departure).


Derived by EMN from Art. 8(6) of


  • BG: наблюдение на принудителното връщане
  • CS: monitoring nucených návratů
  • DE: Überwachung von Rückführungen
  • EL: παρακολούθηση αναγκαστικών επιστροφών
  • EN: forced return monitoring
  • ES: Control y seguimiento retorno forzoso
  • ET: sunniviisilise tagasisaatmise jälgimine
  • FI: pakkopalautusten valvonta / maastapoistamisen valvonta
  • FR: contrôle du retour forcé
  • HU: a kitoloncolás végrehajtásának felügyelete
  • IT: (sistema di) monitoraggio dei rimpatri forzati
  • LT: priverstinio grąžinimo stebėsena (EU acquis); išsiuntimo stebėsena
  • LV: piespiedu atgriešanas uzraudzība (EU acquis); piespiedu izraidīšanas uzraudzība
  • MT: Monitoraġġ tar-ritorn ta' bilfors / tar-ripatrijazzjoni obbligatorja
  • NL: monitoring van gedwongen terugkeer
  • PT: monitorização do retorno forçado
  • SK: monitorovanie núteného návratu
  • SL: spremljanje prisilnega vračanja
  • SV: övervakning av återvändande med tvång
  • NO: Overvåking av tvangsretur


  • forced return monitoring system
  • forced return monitoring tool
  • return monitoring

Broader Term(s)


1. Art. 8(6) of Council Directive 2008/115/EC (Return Directive) introduced an important fundamental rights safeguard for third-country nationals ordered to leave the EU obliging EU Member States to implement a forced return monitoring system. This should include involvement of organisations/bodies different and independent from the authorities enforcing return. The European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) supports return monitoring by deploying experts (‘return monitors’) who carry out independent monitoring of return operations to ensure compliance with fundamental rights (Art. 29 of Regulation (EU) 2016/1624 (European Border and Coast Guard Regulation) ).
2. The mere existence of judicial remedies in individual cases or national systems of the supervision of the efficiency of national return policies cannot be considered as a valid application of Art. 8(6) of the Return Directive.
3. Art. 8(6) of the Return Directive does not imply a subjective right of a returnee to be monitored nor does it imply an obligation to monitor each single removal operation. A monitoring system based on spot checks and monitoring of random samples may be considered sufficient as long as the monitoring intensity is sufficiently close to guarantee overall efficiency of monitoring.
4. The monitoring does not cover post-return monitoring (the period following reception of the returnee in a third country).