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Migration and Home Affairs

Convention grounds for persecution


The five enumerated grounds listed in Art. 1A(2) of the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol : race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion which must be the reason for persecution.


Derived by EMN from Art. 1A(2) of the Geneva Refugee Convention and Protocol


  • BG: основания за преследване, посочени в Конвенцията за статута на бежанците
  • CS: důvody pronásledování podle Ženevské úmluvy
  • DE: Verfolgungsgründe (nach) der Genfer Konvention / Konventionsgründe
  • EL: λόγοι δίωξης σύμφωνα με τη Σύμβαση της Γενεύης
  • EN: Convention grounds for persecution
  • ES: motivos de persecución Convenio de Ginebra de 1951 y Protocolo de 1967
  • ET: Genfi konventsioonis sätestatud tagakiusamise alused
  • FI: Geneven yleissopimuksen mukaiset vainon perusteet
  • FR: motifs de persécution au sens de la Convention de Genève
  • GA: forais ghéarleanúna de réir Choinbhinsiún na Ginéive
  • HR: Konvencijske osnove proganjanja
  • HU: a genfi egyezmèny szerinti üldöztetèsi ok
  • IT: cause di persecuzione ex Convenzione di Ginevra
  • LT: persekiojimo pagrindai pagal Konvenciją
  • LV: Ženēvas konvencijas noteiktie vajāšanas pamati
  • MT: Motivi għall-persekuzzjoni skont il-Konvenzjoni ta’ Ġinevra
  • NL: gronden voor vervolging in de zin van het Vluchtelingenverdrag
  • PT: motivos de perseguição na aceção da Convenção de Genebra
  • RO: motive de persecutie stabilite de Conventia de la Geneva
  • SK: dôvody prenasledovania podľa Ženevského dohovoru
  • SL: konvencijski razlogi za preganjanje / razlogi za preganjanje po Ženevski konvenciji
  • SV: konventionsgrunder för förföljelse
  • NO: konvensjonsgrunnene for forfølgelse (b); konvensjonsgrunnane for forfølging (n)
  • KA: კონვენციით განსაზღვრული დევნის საფუძვლები
  • UK: Підстави для переслідування за Конвенцією
  • HY: Կոնվենցիայով սահմանված հետապնդման հիմքեր


  • grounds for persecution
  • reasons for persecution

Broader Term(s)

Related Term(s)


1. Not every person who is outside their own country and has a well-founded fear of persecution is a Convention refugee . One of the conditions for qualification for refugee status within the meaning of Art. 1(A) of the Geneva Refugee Convention is the existence of a causal link between the reasons for persecution, namely race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, and the acts of persecution or the absence of protection against such acts. Persecution based on any other ground will not be considered. The risk of being persecuted may sometimes arise in circumstances where two or more Convention grounds combine in the same person, in which case the combination of such grounds defines the causal connection to the well-founded fear of being persecuted.
2. The following definitions come into play when States attempt to determine who is and who is not a refugee :
- race is used in its broadest sense and includes ethnic and social groups of common descent;
- religion also has meaning, including identification with a group that tends to share common traditions or beliefs, as well as the active practice of religion;
- nationality includes an individual’s citizenship. Persecution of ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups within a population also may be termed persecution based on nationality;
- a particular social group refers to people who share a similar background, habits or social status. This category often overlaps with persecution based on one of the other four grounds. It has applied to families of capitalists, landowners, homosexuals, entrepreneurs and former members of the military;
- political opinion refers to ideas not tolerated by the authorities, including opinions critical of government policies and methods. It includes opinions attributed to individuals even if the individual does not in fact hold that opinion. Individuals who conceal their political opinions until after they have fled their countries may qualify for refugee status if they can show that their views are likely to subject them to persecution if they return home.